Sumba Barat Daya Regency is the main focus area for YHS. It is one of the four Sumba Regencies or Kabupaten.  Its area is 1,445.32 km², with 11 sub-districts (kecamatan) and 173 villages (desas).

The population of SBD is currently 325,699 people.  Half of the population is Christian Catholic (52.79%), others are Christian Protestants (35.79%), Muslims (11.23%), Hindus (0.19%) and Buddhists (0.01%).

As with the whole of Sumba, the face of poverty and underdevelopment can be found throughout SBD.  Some indicators (National Statistics Office or BPS 2017):  29.34% are poor by Indonesian standards, compared with 22.19% for NTT and 10.12% nationally.   Income per capita is Rp. 290,944  per month compared with Rp. 322,947 for NTT and Rp. 3,996,450 nationally.  The signs of poverty are everywhere and spread evenly throughout the Regency.

In the fields of education and health, the same applies.  According to BPS 2017, the SBD Human Development Index is 61.31, lower than NTT’s 63.13 and far from the national HDI of 70.18.  The SBD Pure Enrollment Rate (APM) for elementary school is 80.89% , still below the NTT 92.9% and 93.38% national figures.  So 19.11% of children aged 7 to 12 are not in school.

There are in fact sufficient places for all children of primary school age to attend school, but the level of the education given is still very low.

In the health sector, SBD was ranked second worst in severe malnutrition in NTT (364 people).   This level means a danger of dying of malnutrition.  For NTT SBD is also second highest for malaria, third for diarrhea and fifth for HIV/AIDS.

The government statistics published as ‘Sumba Barat Daya in Figures’ (2017) shows that only 39.8% of the population have safe drinking water sources (16.26% use bottled water, plumbing and wells and 23.54% use protected springs). The others rely on unprotected i.e. dirty, springs (24.87%),  8.52% on surface water (lakes, rivers, reservoirs, ponds and irrigation) and still more than a quarter of the population is dependent on rainwater (26.81%).  These indicators illustrate some reasons for the poor health of the population in this district.